Animal models have been used to address a variety of scientific questions, from basic science to the development and assessment of novel compounds, vaccines, or therapies.

Animal research is conducted in compliance with regulatory provisions which cover the inspection and licensing of animal premises, the training and competence of all personal designing projects, performing animal procedures and taking care of animals and the mandatory authorization of every project by a competent authority upon ethical evaluation by an Animal Ethics Committee.

Below are some of the animal models we employ:

Long Evans (LE) Rat
  • Also known as the, Black-Hooded or Hooded rat
  • Used for neurological, toxicological and ophthalmologic studies
  • Reported higher resistance to respiratory problems than outbred albino rats, making the Long Evans rat the preferred stock for surgical procedures requiring extended use of inhalant anesthetics.

Origin: The Long Evans outbred model was developed by Dr. Long and Dr. Evans in 1915 by intercrossing Wistar Institute white female rats to wild grey male rats.

Sprague Dawley® (SD) Rat
  • Used in virtually all disciplines of biomedical research including toxicology and pharmacology
  • Excellent reproductive performance makes the SD rat a good model for generating timed pregnant females

Origin: The Sprague Dawley® outbred model was developed by Sprague Dawley, Inc.

Wistar Kyoto (WKY) Rat
  • Often used as the normotensive control for the SHR
  • Males exhibit systolic blood pressures of 125 to 140 mmHg at 10 weeks of age
  • A partially inbred model (F10) which retains some residual heterozygosity

Origin: NIH received the Wistar Kyoto inbred/outbred model as an inbred from the Kyoto School of Medicine in 1971.

Black 6 (C57BL/6) Mouse

One of the most used inbred mouse models, the C57BL/6 is used in nearly every research application, and it's commonly used as the genetic background for transgenic mouse models. It is also the preferred model for studying diet-induced obesity and the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis.

  • Popular research applications include oncology;
  • immunology, metabolic disease, addiction and toxicology
  • C57BL/6NTac is the preferred C57BL/6 substrain for generation of genetically engineered models, including by the Knockout Mouse Project (KOMP) and International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC)
  • The Black 6 has superior reproductive performance compared to other B6 substrains: superovulated females yield a high number of embryos and males have higher sperm fertilization rates
  • The C57BL/6NTac has proven more amenable to the development of quality embryonic stem cells compared to other B6 substrains
  • Popular strain for syngeneic tumor experiments; with a suite of related strains on the same background for mechanistic studies including Rag2, Rag2/OT-I, Rag2/OT-II and many more

Origin: The C57BL strain created by C.C. Little in the 1920's gave rise to the C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 substrains sometime before 1937.

C57BL/10J Mouse

C57BL/10J is a substrain of C57BL, and shares a common origin with C57BL/6J, which is one of the most widely used inbred strains. C57BL/10J mice are a valuable immunological research tool. They have a high lymphocyte phytohaemagglutinin response, a good immune response to ovalbumin, a poor response to DNP-keyhole limpet haemocyanin and are resistant to induction of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (IgG1- and IgE- mediated). They are susceptible to immunosuppression of contact hypersensitivity by ultraviolet light, highly susceptible to TNBS-induced colitis and moderately susceptible to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

Origin: The C57BL strain created by C.C. Little in the 1920's gave rise to the C57BL/6 and C57BL/10 substrains sometime before 1937, and the C57BL/10J substrain was separated from other C57BL/10 substrains in 1947.

ICR scid (ICRSC) Mouse
  • Equivalent to C.B-17 scids in severity of immunodeficiency, but this outbred background exhibits a significantly reduced incidence of spontaneous Ig production (leakiness)
  • Gains weight faster than the C.B-17 scid which makes the ICR-scid better suited for ascites production from heterohybridomas and as a host for tumor lines
  • Mice homozygous for the scid mutation lack both T and B cells due to a defect in V(D)J recombination. They easily accepts foreign tissue transplants, including human tumors, making them effective models for testing new cancer treatments. Scid mice are also useful for examining the relationship between immunity and disease.
  • Genetic Background: ICR Background

Origin: The ICR scid spontaneous mutant model was developed by the Fox Chase Cancer Center by intercrossing ICR mice to C.B-17-SCID mice. The mice were then backcrossed two generations to a Icr:Ha(ICR) outbred background.

Swiss Webster (SW) Mouse
  • Extensively used for decades as an all-purpose stock for research and drug safety testing
  • Often used as recipient mother in transgenic labs due to its superior nurturing ability
  • Swiss Webster females (SW-F) are also ideal pseudopregnant recipients for embryo transfers of black and agouti mouse lines

Origin: The original group of Swiss mice that served as progenitors of this stock consisted of two male and seven female albino mice derived from a non-inbred stock in the laboratory of Dr. de Coulon, Centre Anticancereux Romand, Lausanne, Switzerland. These animals were imported into the United States by Dr. Clara Lynch of the Rockefeller Institute in 1926. The Hauschka Ha/ICR stock was initiated in 1948 at the Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) in Philadelphia from “Swiss” mice of Rockefeller origin.

CD-1® IGS Mouse
  • Exhibits a significantly reduced incidence of spontaneous Ig production (leakiness)
  • Gains weight faster than the C.B-17 scid which makes the ICR-scid better suited for ascites production from heterohybridomas and as a host for tumor lines
  • Mice homozygous for the scid mutation lack both T and B cells due to a defect in V(D)J recombination.
  • They easily accepts foreign tissue transplants, including human tumors, making them effective models for testing new cancer treatments. Scid mice are also useful for examining the relationship between immunity and disease.

Origin: The ICR scid spontaneous mutant model was developed by the Fox Chase Cancer Center by intercrossing ICR mice to C.B-17-SCID mice. The mice were then backcrossed two generations to a Icr:Ha(ICR) outbred background.

NOD scid gamma (NSG) Mice

Also Known As: NOD-scid IL2Rgammanull, NOD-scid IL2Rgnull, NSG, NOD scid gamma
These mice are most often referred to using their branded name "NSG™" and are extremely immunodeficient. The mice carry two mutations on the NOD/ShiLtJ genetic background; severe combined immune deficiency (scid) and a complete null allele of the IL2 receptor common gamma chain (IL2rgnull). The scid mutation is in the DNA repair complex protein Prkdc and renders the mice B and T cell deficient. The IL2rgnull mutation prevents cytokine signaling through multiple receptors, leading to a deficiency in functional NK cells. The severe immunodeficiency allows the mice to be humanized by engraftment of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), patient derived xenografts (PDX), or adult stem cells and tissues. The immunodeficient NSG mice enable research in human immune function, infectious disease, diabetes, oncology, and stem cell biology.

Origin: These double mutant mice were produced by breeding female NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice with male mice bearing the X-linked B6.129S4-Il2rgtm1Wjl/J allele. The resulting male mice heterozygous for the Prkdcscid allele and hemizygous for the Il2rgtm1Wjl allele were crossed to female NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice for eight generations. Heterozygotes were interbred to produce mice homozygous for the Prkdcscid allele and homozygous (females) or hemizygous (males) for the Il2rgtm1Wjl allele.